Africa

Africa is the world’s second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world’s human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Area 30,370,000 km2 (11,730,000 sq mi)  (2nd)
Population 1,225,080,510 (2016; 2nd)
Population density 36.4/km2 (94/sq mi)
Demonym African
Countries 54 (and 2 disputed)
Dependencies External (3) Mayotte Réunion Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaInternal (4) Canary Islands Ceuta Madeira Melilla
Languages 1250–3000 native languages
Time zones UTC-1 to UTC+4
Largest cities Largest Urban Areas:
Lagos
Cairo
Kinshasa
Johannesburg
Abuja
Khartoum
Dar es Salaam
Alexandria
Abidjan
Algiers
Kano
Casablanca
Ibadan
Nairobi
Addis Ababa
Accra

Africa’s average population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4.Algeria is Africa’s largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as later ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensisAustralopithecus africanusA. afarensisHomo erectusH. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human), found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.[ Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.

Etymology

Statue representing Africa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya). This name seems to have originally referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers; see Terence for discussion. The name had usually been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning “dust”, but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran) meaning “cave”, in reference to cave dwellers. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.

Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar). The later Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire’s Exarchatus Africae, also preserved a form of the name.

According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while “Asia” was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85–165 AD), indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of “Africa” expanded with their knowledge.

Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name “Africa”:

  • The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya.
  • Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. suggests “Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning “sunny”.
  • Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning “to turn toward the opening of the Ka.” The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the “opening of the Ka” refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, “the birthplace.”
  • Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus “south wind”, which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally “rainy wind”.
  • Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: “The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir.”
  • Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi also called “Afrikus son of Abrahah” who subdued Ifriqiya.

History

Prehistory

Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia’s Afar Depression

Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago (BP=before present). Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BP,Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BP) and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BP) have been discovered.

After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens approximately 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers. These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.

Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern AfricaSoutheast AfricaNorth Africa, and the Sahara.

The size of the Sahara has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions. At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n’Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia. However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC, the Sahara region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. Around 3500 BC, due to a tilt in the earth’s orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification. The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia.

The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia.

Around 4000 BC, the Saharan climate started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.

By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa and quickly spread across the Sahara into the northern parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn’t begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade networks had been established by this date.

Early civilizations

Colossal statues of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel, Egypt, date from around 1400 BC.

At about 3300 BC, the historical record opens in Northern Africa with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt. One of the world’s earliest and longest-lasting civilizations, the Egyptian state continued, with varying levels of influence over other areas, until 343 BC. Egyptian influence reached deep into modern-day Libya and Nubia, and, according to Martin Bernal, as far north as Crete.[

An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage.

European exploration of Africa began with Ancient Greeks and Romans. In 332 BC, Alexander the Great was welcomed as a liberator in Persian-occupied Egypt. He founded Alexandria in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death.

Following the conquest of North Africa’s Mediterranean coastline by the Roman Empire, the area was integrated economically and culturally into the Roman system. Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia and elsewhere along the coast. The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya—his mother was Italian Roman and his father was Punic.

Christianity spread across these areas at an early date, from Judaea via Egypt and beyond the borders of the Roman world into Nubia; by AD 340 at the latest, it had become the state religion of the Aksumite EmpireSyro-Greek missionaries, who arrived by way of the Red Sea, were responsible for this theological development.

In the early 7th century, the newly formed Arabian Islamic Caliphate expanded into Egypt, and then into North Africa. In a short while, the local Berber elite had been integrated into Muslim Arab tribes. When the Umayyad capital Damascus fell in the 8th century, the Islamic centre of the Mediterranean shifted from Syria to Qayrawan in North Africa. Islamic North Africa had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, jurists, and philosophers. During the above-mentioned period, Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through trade routes and migration.

Ninth to eighteenth centuries

African horseman of Baguirmi in full padded armour suit
African horseman of Baguirmi in full padded armour suit
Pre-colonial Africa possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the AkanEdoYoruba, and Igbo people in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa.

By the ninth century AD, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-Saharan savannah from the western regions to central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were GhanaGao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana declined in the eleventh century but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of western Sudan in the thirteenth century. Kanem accepted Islam in the eleventh century.

In the forested regions of the West African coast, independent kingdoms grew with little influence from the Muslim north. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day Nigeria and was ruled by the Eze Nri. The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes, found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century.

Ashanti yam ceremony, nineteenth century by Thomas Edward Bowdich
Ashanti yam ceremony, nineteenth century by Thomas Edward Bowdich

The Kingdom of Ife, historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established a government under a priestly oba (‘king’ or ‘ruler’ in the Yoruba language), called the Ooni of Ife. Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural centre in West Africa, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire, where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control.

The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of northwestern Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the eleventh century.] The Banu Hilal and Banu Ma’qil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes from the Arabian Peninsula who migrated westwards via Egypt between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Their migration resulted in the fusion of the Arabs and Berbers, where the locals were Arabized, and Arab culture absorbed elements of the local culture, under the unifying framework of Islam.

Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)
Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)

Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship. By the eleventh century, some Hausa states – such as KanojigawaKatsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing a map of the African continent from the perspective of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans controlled much of Northern Africa between the 14th and 19th centuries, and had vassal arrangements with a number of Saharan states.

Mansa Musa ruled the Mali Empire in the 14th century

The height of the slave trade

Arab–Swahili slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River (in today’s Tanzania and Mozambique) as witnessed by David Livingstone

Slavery had long been practised in Africa. Between the 7th and 20th centuries, the Arab slave trade (also known as “slavery in the east”) took 18 million slaves from Africa via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes. Between the 15th and the 19th centuries, the Atlantic slave trade took an estimated 7–12 million slaves to the New World.[ In addition, more than 1 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa between the 16th and 19th centuries.[

In West Africa, the decline of the Atlantic slave trade in the 1820s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities. The gradual decline of slave-trading, prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World, increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe and America, and the British Royal Navy’s increasing presence off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies. Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.

Slave being inspected, from Captain Canot; or, Twenty Years of an African Slaver

Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against “the usurping King of Lagos“, deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[ The largest powers of West Africa (the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire) adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. Asante and Dahomey concentrated on the development of “legitimate commerce” in the form of palm oilcocoatimber and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa’s modern export trade. The Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, collapsed into civil wars.[

Colonialism and the “Scramble for Africa”

The Mahdist War was a colonial war fought between the Mahdist Sudanese and the British forces.

In the late 19th century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial territories, and leaving only two fully independent states: Ethiopia (known to Europeans as “Abyssinia”), and LiberiaEgypt and Sudan were never formally incorporated into any European colonial empire; however, after the British occupation of 1882, Egypt was effectively under British administration until 1922.

Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference held in 1884–85 was an important event in the political future of African ethnic groups. It was convened by King Leopold II of Belgium, and attended by the European powers that laid claim to African territories. The Berlin Conference sought to end the European powers’ Scramble for Africa, by agreeing on political division and spheres of influence. They set up the political divisions of the continent, by spheres of interest, that exist in Africa today.

Independence struggles

Imperial rule by Europeans would continue until after the conclusion of World War II, when almost all remaining colonial territories gradually obtained formal independence. Independence movements in Africa gained momentum following World War II, which left the major European powers weakened. In 1951, Libya, a former Italian colony, gained independence. In 1956, Tunisia and Morocco won their independence from France. Ghana followed suit the next year (March 1957), becoming the first of the sub-Saharan colonies to be granted independence. Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade.

Portugal’s overseas presence in Sub-Saharan Africa (most notably in Angola, Cape Verde, MozambiqueGuinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe) lasted from the 16th century to 1975, after the Estado Novo regime was overthrown in a military coup in LisbonRhodesia unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1965, under the white minority government of Ian Smith, but was not internationally recognized as an independent state (as Zimbabwe) until 1980, when black nationalists gained power after a bitter guerrilla war. Although South Africa was one of the first African countries to gain independence, the state remained under the control of the country’s white minority through a system of racial segregation known as apartheid until 1994.

Post-colonial Africa

Today, Africa contains 54 sovereign countries, most of which have borders that were drawn during the era of European colonialism. Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships.

Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.

South African paratroops on a raid in Angola during the South African Border War

Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund, also played a role in instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while others in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. The 1970s saw an escalation of Cold War intrigues, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique, aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by supporting friendly regimes or insurgency movements. In Rhodesia, Soviet and Chinese-backed leftist guerrillas of the Zimbabwe Patriotic Front waged a brutal guerrilla war against the country’s white government. There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist economic policies made the situation worse.[ The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath has killed an estimated 5.5 million people. Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur which has become a humanitarian disaster. Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa has also been a prevalent issue.

In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. This coincided with many countries abandoning communist-style command economies and opening up for market reforms. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China, which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Several African economies are among the world’s fastest growing as of 2016. A significant part of this growth, which is sometimes referred to as Africa Rising, can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile telephone. Migration from African nations has increased dramatically in the last decade.

The African Union

Member states of the African Union

The African Union (AU) is a 55-member federation consisting of all of Africa’s states. The union was formed, with Addis AbabaEthiopia, as its headquarters, on 26 June 2001. The union was officially established on 9 July 2002[ as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). In July 2004, the African Union’s Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights remained in Addis Ababa. There is a policy in effect to decentralize the African Federation’s institutions so that they are shared by all the states.

The African Union, not to be confused with the AU Commission, is formed by the Constitutive Act of the African Union, which aims to transform the African Economic Community, a federated commonwealth, into a state under established international conventions. The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs. It is led by the African Union President and Head of State, who is also the President of the Pan-African Parliament. A person becomes AU President by being elected to the PAP, and subsequently gaining majority support in the PAP. The powers and authority of the President of the African Parliament derive from the Constitutive Act and the Protocol of the Pan-African Parliament, as well as the inheritance of presidential authority stipulated by African treaties and by international treaties, including those subordinating the Secretary General of the OAU Secretariat (AU Commission) to the PAP. The government of the AU consists of all-union (federal), regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution.

Political associations such as the African Union offer hope for greater co-operation and peace between the continent’s many countries. Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Countries where major human rights violations have been reported in recent times include the Democratic Republic of the CongoSierra LeoneLiberiaSudanZimbabwe, and Côte d’Ivoire.

African Intergovernmental Organizations

Languages

By most estimates, well over a thousand languages (UNESCO has estimated around two thousand) are spoken in Africa.[ Most are of African origin, though some are of European or Asian origin. Africa is the most multilingual continent in the world, and it is not rare for individuals to fluently speak not only multiple African languages, but one or more European ones as well. There are four major language families indigenous to Africa:

  • The Afroasiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout the Horn of AfricaNorth Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia.
  • The Nilo-Saharan language family consists of more than a hundred languages spoken by 30 million people. Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by ethnic groups in ChadEthiopiaKenyaNigeriaSudanSouth SudanUganda, and northern Tanzania.
  • The Niger-Congo language family covers much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of number of languages, it is the largest language family in Africa and perhaps the largest in the world.
  • The Khoisan languages number about fifty and are spoken in Southern Africa by approximately 400,000 people.[ Many of the Khoisan languages are endangered. The Khoi and San peoples are considered the original inhabitants of this part of Africa.

Following the end of colonialism, nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries also granted legal recognition to indigenous languages (such as SwahiliYorubaIgbo and Hausa). In numerous countries, English and French (see African French) are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. ArabicPortugueseAfrikaans and Spanish are examples of languages that trace their origin to outside of Africa, and that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres. Italian is spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa. German is spoken in Namibia, as it was a former German protectorate.

Culture

The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. For example, African customs were discouraged, and African languages were prohibited in mission schools. Leopold II of Belgium attempted to “civilize” Africans by discouraging polygamy and witchcraft.

Obidoh Freeborn posits that colonialism is one element that has created the character of modern African art. According to authors Douglas Fraser and Herbert M. Cole, “The precipitous alterations in the power structure wrought by colonialism were quickly followed by drastic iconographic changes in the art.”  Fraser and Cole assert that, in Igboland, some art objects “lack the vigor and careful craftsmanship of the earlier art objects that served traditional functions. Author Chika Okeke-Agulu states that “the racist infrastructure of British imperial enterprise forced upon the political and cultural guardians of empire a denial and suppression of an emergent sovereign Africa and modernist art.” In Soweto, the West Rand Administrative Board established a Cultural Section to collect, read, and review scripts before performances could occur. Editors F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the “traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe.” On the other hand, Mhoze Chikowero believes that Africans deployed music, dance, spirituality, and other performative cultures to (re)asset themselves as active agents and indigenous intellectuals, to unmake their colonial marginalization and reshape their own destinies.”

There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo MbekiAfrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality.

Arms Flag Name of region and
territory, with flag
Area
(km²)
Population Year Density
(per km²)
Capital
North Africa
Emblem of Algeria.svg Algeria Algeria 2,381,740 34,178,188 2009 14 Algiers
Canary Islands Canary Islands Canary Islands (Spain) 7,492 2,154,905 2017 226 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Ceuta Ceuta Ceuta (Spain) 20 85,107 2017 3,575
Egypt Egypt Egypt 1,001,450 82,868,000 2012 83 Cairo
The emblem on the passport of Libya.svg Libya Libya 1,759,540 6,310,434 2009 4 Tripoli
Madeira Madeira Madeira (Portugal) 797 245,000 2001 307 Funchal
Melilla Melilla Melilla (Spain) 12 85,116 2017 5,534
Morocco Morocco Morocco 446,550 34,859,364 2009 78 Rabat
Sudan Sudan Sudan 1,861,484 30,894,000 2008 17 Khartoum
Tunisia Tunisia Tunisia 163,610 10,486,339 2009 64 Tunis
Coat of arms of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Western Sahara Western Sahara 266,000 405,210 2009 2 El Aaiún
East Africa
Burundi Burundi Burundi 27,830 8,988,091 2009 323 Bujumbura
Seal of the Comoros.svg Comoros Comoros 2,170 752,438 2009 347 Moroni
Djibouti Djibouti Djibouti 23,000 828,324 2015 22 Djibouti
Eritrea Eritrea Eritrea 121,320 5,647,168 2009 47 Asmara
Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopia 1,127,127 84,320,987 2012 75 Addis Ababa
Kenya Kenya Kenya 582,650 39,002,772 2009 66 Nairobi
Seal of Madagascar.svg Madagascar Madagascar 587,040 20,653,556 2009 35 Antananarivo
Malawi Malawi Malawi 118,480 14,268,711 2009 120 Lilongwe
Mauritius Mauritius Mauritius 2,040 1,284,264 2009 630 Port Louis
Mayotte Mayotte Mayotte (France) 374 223,765 2009 490 Mamoudzou
Emblem of Mozambique.svg Mozambique Mozambique 801,590 21,669,278 2009 27 Maputo
Réunion Réunion Réunion (France) 2,512 743,981 2002 296 Saint-Denis
Rwanda Rwanda Rwanda 26,338 10,473,282 2009 398 Kigali
Seychelles Seychelles Seychelles 455 87,476 2009 192 Victoria
Somalia Somalia Somalia 637,657 9,832,017 2009 15 Mogadishu
South Sudan South Sudan South Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 2008 13 Juba
Tanzania Tanzania Tanzania 945,087 44,929,002 2009 43 Dodoma
Uganda Uganda Uganda 236,040 32,369,558 2009 137 Kampala
Zambia Zambia Zambia 752,614 11,862,740 2009 16 Lusaka
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 390,580 11,392,629 2009 29 Harare
Central Africa
Emblem of Angola.svg Angola Angola 1,246,700 12,799,293 2009 10 Luanda
Cameroon Cameroon Cameroon 475,440 18,879,301 2009 40 Yaoundé
Central African Republic Central African Republic Central African Republic 622,984 4,511,488 2009 7 Bangui
Chad Chad Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208 2009 8 N’Djamena
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 342,000 4,012,809 2009 12 Brazzaville
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,345,410 69,575,000 2012 30 Kinshasa
Coat of arms of Equatorial Guinea.svg Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 28,051 633,441 2009 23 Malabo
Gabon Gabon Gabon 267,667 1,514,993 2009 6 Libreville
Coat of arms of São Tomé and Príncipe.svg São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 1,001 212,679 2009 212 São Tomé
Southern Africa
Botswana Botswana Botswana 600,370 1,990,876 2009 3 Gaborone
Eswatini Eswatini Eswatini 17,363 1,123,913 2009 65 Mbabane
Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho 30,355 2,130,819 2009 70 Maseru
Namibia Namibia Namibia 825,418 2,108,665 2009 3 Windhoek
South Africa South Africa South Africa 1,219,912 51,770,560 2011 42 BloemfonteinCape TownPretoria
West Africa
Benin Benin Benin 112,620 8,791,832 2009 78 Porto-Novo
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 274,200 15,746,232 2009 57 Ouagadougou
Coat of arms of Cape Verde.svg Cape Verde Cape Verde 4,033 429,474 2009 107 Praia
The Gambia The Gambia The Gambia 11,300 1,782,893 2009 158 Banjul
Ghana Ghana Ghana 239,460 23,832,495 2009 100 Accra
Coat of arms of Guinea.svg Guinea Guinea 245,857 10,057,975 2009 41 Conakry
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 36,120 1,533,964 2009 43 Bissau
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 322,460 20,617,068 2009 64 Abidjan, Yamoussoukro
Liberia Liberia Liberia 111,370 3,441,790 2009 31 Monrovia
Mali Mali Mali 1,240,000 12,666,987 2009 10 Bamako
Seal of Mauritania (December 2018).svg Mauritania Mauritania 1,030,700 3,129,486 2009 3 Nouakchott
Niger Niger Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252 2009 12 Niamey
Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria 923,768 166,629,000 2012 180 Abuja
United Kingdom Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha(United Kingdom) 420 7,728 2012 13 Jamestown
Senegal Senegal Senegal 196,190 13,711,597 2009 70 Dakar
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 71,740 6,440,053 2009 90 Freetown
Togo Togo Togo 56,785 6,019,877 2009 106 Lomé
Africa Total 30,368,609 1,001,320,281 2009 33

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