The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world’s oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square
The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica). The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N.[
Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University‘s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office.
The oldest known mentions of an “Atlantic” sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC (Sch. A. R. 1. 211): Atlantikoi pelágei (Greek: Ἀτλαντικῷ πελάγει; English: ‘the Atlantic sea’; etym. ‘Sea of Atlantis‘) and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (Hdt. 1.202.4): Atlantis
The term “Aethiopian Ocean“, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was also known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean.