Saadi dynasty

The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (Arabicالسعديون‎ as-saʿadiūn) was an Arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.

From 1509 to 1549, they had ruled only in the south of Morocco. Although still recognizing the Wattasids as Sultans until 1528, Saadian’s growing power led the Wattasids to attack them and, after an indecisive battle, to recognize their rule over southern Morocco through the Treaty of Tadla.

Their reign over Morocco began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1554, when he vanquished the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla. The Saadian rule ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad el Abbas.

The extent of the Saadian empire during the reign of Ahmad al-Mansur

Origins

The Banu Zaydan claimed descent from the prophet Muhammad through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra (Muhammad’s daughter). They came from Tagmadert in the valley of the Draa River. The family’s village of origin in the Draa was Tidzi (a qsar, some 10 km north of Zagora). They claimed Sharifian origins through an ancestor from Yanbu and rendered Sufism respectable in Morocco. The name Saadi or Saadian derives from “sa’ada” meaning happiness or salvation. Others think it derives from the name Bani Zaydan or that it was given to the Bani Zaydan (shurafa of Tagmadert) by later generations and rivals for power, who tried to deny their Hassanid descent by claiming that they came from the family of HalimahSaadiyya, Muhammad’s wet nurse. Their ancestor is Zaydan Ibn Ahmed a Sharif from Yanbu. The most famous sultan of the Saadi was Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603), builder of the El Badi Palace in Marrakech and contemporary of Elizabeth I. One of their most important achievements was defeating the Portuguese at the Battle of Ksar El Kebir, and defending the country against the Ottomans. Before they conquered Marrakech, they had Taroudannt as their capital city.

The Saadian Tombs were rediscovered in 1917 and can be seen in Marrakech.

Chronology

Rulers

1509–54: Saadian princes of Tagmadert

1554–1659: Saadian sultans of Morocco

1603–27: Succession war

Source: Wikipedia under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License

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