The concept of “Afro-Europeans” is used on the model of African Americans by associations and movements militating in favor of equal opportunities for black and mixed-race people from overseas territories and Europe.
Today, Black Europeans generally enjoy high levels of social integration, assimilation, and belonging in Western Europe despite past histories of colonization and discrimination. Interracial couples among black Europeans are common and some black Europeans have gone to serve as government officials and ministers.
In the European Union, there is a record of 15 million people of African or Afro-Caribbean descent, comprising over 2.5% of the total population. The countries with the largest African population in Europe are:
|France||4,000,000 – 6,000,000||most have roots in the former French colonies in Africa, with around 800,000 having roots in the French Caribbean islands|
|United Kingdom||3,500,000||most have roots in former British colonies in The Caribbean as well as Africa.|
|Italy||1,200,000||most are migrants both legal and illegal. Also includes some populations with Italian colonial ties. (with illegals estimated)|
|Belgium||800,000||most have roots in the former Belgian Congo as well as French-speaking African countries.|
|Spain||550,000||most are former Spanish colonies in Latin America and Equatorial Guinea, also includes many contract workers from Africa|
|Germany||600,000||includes bi-racial children of Black American soldiers from the Cold War, African-Americans with Cold War ties, as well as recent students, professionals, and other immigrants from Africa; excluding MENA population classified as sub-saharan African|
|Netherlands||900,000||most have roots from former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean.|
|Portugal||150,000||most have roots from former Portuguese colonies in Africa|
|Sweden||190,000||consists mostly of recent immigrants, refugees, and asylum seekers. Most of them are from Somalia, Eritrea and countries around. Some French and British nationals of African descent can be found in Malmö and Stockholm.|
|Finland||60,000||People with a foreign background from Africa. Large community of Somalis in Helsinki.|
|Republic of Ireland||70,000||2011 Census|
|Switzerland||150,000||consists mostly of black Europeans with citizenship in other European countries, such as Portugal, France, and Spain.|
|Norway||131,700||Somalis make a big part of population. Can be found a significant Congo population in Bergen.|
Smaller Afro-European communities can also be found elsewhere in Europe.
More than 1,000,000 sub-Saharan Africans had settled in Europe between 2010 and 2017.